How to organise audio out?

I have a very basic question which I still have not really figured out, probably because it’s too obvious :wink:

I am still at the very beginning and have built my first VCOs which spit out CV, e.g. nice triangles/saw/square from 0V to 5V. To tune them, I currently use a dead simple AC coupling to centre the signal with a cap and a pull-down resistor and my audio amplifier can handle it nicely. It’s obviously all passive and boring, but it works (“if it sounds right, it is right”). In my first attempt I tuned them using my frequency counter, but that’s boring.

This is usually one of the last stages of signal processing, so I assume you all have a (or multiple) VCA module(s) which have AC or DC coupling and this is where you connect your mixer or as in my case the audio amplifier directly…

…or how do you deal with the audio out in your modular synth?

Sorry if this is too obvious, I am happy about links to other existing discussions and resources :wink:

Some discussion here:

Also see the incoming links in that post.


Perfect, many thanks :sweat_smile: