Arduino based VCOs?

You could, but be aware that’s a big self limitation: It prohibits you from ever using a design from someone else that goes outside that range, and it limits you to a 5 octave pitch range. Yeah, you can do a lot in 5 octaves. But with just an op amp you can rescale and offset (or with just a voltage divider you can rescale) a larger CV range to 0 to 5 V and not have that limitation.

Edit to add: There is a downside, which is that you have a 10 bit ADC and with a 0–5 V input an LSB is 4.88 mV corresponding to 5.85 cents pitch. If you rescale a ±5 V CV to 0–5 V and digitize that then an LSB is 11.7 cents, nearly an eighth of a semitone. That’s… not very good pitch resolution. Even 5.85 cents (and that’s in the ideal case, with no ADC nonlinearity) isn’t that great. An external 12 (or more) bit ADC would give better results.

For that you might look at this:

which is a DCO, not a wavetable, but maybe the CV scaling could be done similarly. Edit to add: You notice that uses a 16 bit ADC and takes 0–10 V input.